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Brown University Scholarly Resources


600 fields




When faced with a MARC record that only includes 653 keywords, OpenRefine can be used to add in FAST Subject Headings.

Example MARC record that has only local 653 keywords for subjects

While the record is open in MARCEdit:

  1. Select OpenRefine from File>Export for>OpenRefine
  2. Save the file as a json

In OpenRefine:

  1. Open the json file as a new project
  2. Use Text facets for the MARC tag fields and restrict to 653
  3. Under the Content column, Select Split multi-valued cells from Edit Cells > Split multi-valued cells
    1. Use "," as a delimiter to break apart multi-valued keywords
    2. Name the new column something simple for easy reference later.
  4. Reconcile the keywords in the new column. Under the column options, Select Reconcile> Start Reconciling.
  5. In the new pop-up, you can add a new reconciliation service.
    1. In the bottom left-hand corner, select 'Add Standard Service'
    2. In the new pop-up, add the url:
    3. Add Service
  6. Select a FAST topic or select ALL
  7. Reconciled keywords will appear as either full match, partial match, or no match. Partial matches will have suggestions. It is recommended you do not spend very long on this stage and accept that some keywords will not have matches.
  8. Under the Content Column, Select Transform from Edit Cells > Transform
    1. In the Expression box, enter GREL code: "$a"+cells["NEW COLUMN NAME"]"$2fast $0(OCoLC)fst"+cells["NEW COLUMN NAME"][28,20000]
    2. Transform!
  9. Delete the New Column and keep the Content Column
  10. Change MARC field tag facet to "(blank)"
    1. Rename "(blank)" in the facet to '650' or whichever subject heading is appropriate based off your FAST topic
    2. Repeat this process for the indicators and set the blank indicators to '\7'
  11. Make sure all columns are in order by: Record Number, MARC field, Indicators, Content
  12. Export as Tab-separated value (.tsv)
  13. In MARCEdit Import the .tsv file via Tools > OpenRefine > Import
    1. Save as .mrk
  14. To avoid any loss of 653 fields, use MARCEdit's merge records tool to add the new 65x fields to the original file.